Sperm donation is a procedure in which a man donates semen — the fluid containing sperm that is released during ejaculation — to help an individual or a couple conceive a baby. Donated sperm can be injected into a woman's reproductive organs (intrauterine insemination) or used to fertilize mature eggs in a lab (in vitro fertilization). The use of donated sperm is known as third-party reproduction.
Sperm donation is done to help an individual or a couple conceive a baby such as help those who are unable to conceive — such as a woman who doesn't have a male partner or a couple experiencing male infertility ( Azoospermia) or suffering from any disease which might get transmitted in baby.
We buy the frozen semen sample from the well known and authorized semen bank and before the semen sample is bought into the clinic some of the following considerations are always taken into account by the semen bank : • The doctor takes a complete medical history and physical examination test, of the patient, before performing the procedure.A note is made of the age and weight, any past surgeries, allergies to any medicines, previous personal history and family history of any diseases, cardiac problems, diabetes, or any other severe issues. In the physical examination, the doctor examines the sperm donor very carefully for any other concerning signs and symptoms. • The doctor also advises some tests before the donation of the sperms including some blood investigations. This is to check for any bleeding disorders or any other problems which the donor might not be aware of. • Age – Most of the sperm banks prefer a sperm donor between the age group of 18 to 39 years. • Medical history – The donor is asked about the complete medical and family history especially if there is any genetic or hereditary disorder. If the donor has any of such congenital disease, then the person may not qualify for becoming a sperm donor. • Testing of the semen– Before becoming an official sperm donor, the person has to give many semen samples. These samples are tested for quality, quantity,motility of sperms The fertility criteria for a man to be declared fertile include the score of more than 15 million sperm count per millilitre of a sperm sample. Also the sperm should have a normal structure and shape, and above 40% of the sperms should be moving. • Physical examination – There will be a physical examination to confirm the overall health of the donor. The donor is asked to give blood samples, urine samples and also would be tested for any infectious or autoimmune diseases e.g. AIDS, HIV, Hepatitis B & C , syphilis. Blood test like blood group, blood count, blood sugar & thyroid function test is done . If the person becomes an official sperm donor, then such physical and blood tests will be done every 6 months. The donor should consult the doctor immediately if any changes in the health are observed. • Genetic testing – such as cystic fibroisis and sickle cell anemia ,Thalasemia. • Sexual and personal history – The man should provide a complete detailed history of the sexual activities till the current day. Any addictions like smoking, drug abuse, alcohol, etc. need to be assessed to see if the man is at any risk of developing an infectious disease or a chronic disease. The person is asked to share everything about the hobbies, education, personal habits, and interests.
If the screening results are normal, then the person will be asked to give sample donations of the semen and hence, complete the further testing.The person who passes the screening test, fulfilling all the criteria, is asked to sign a consent form which states that the person denies any risk factors for genetic infections or sexually transmitted infections.
The sample will be frozen (cryopreserved) and kept in quarantine for at least six months. Then the donor will be tested again for infectious diseases, such as HIV Hepatitis B&C.If all of his test results are negative, the frozen sample will be thawed and sperm quantity, quality and movement will be evaluated again.
• Sperm banks will, by law, always test the sperm for STI’s and sperm’s count / motility. • Frozen sperm can be washed and used for either IUI or IVF. • The donor has no legal rights and responsibilities.